Pakistan Institute of Development Economics


Sovereign Development Toward a Grand Strategy for Pakistan (A. R. Kemal Memorial Lecture)
Author: Arshad Zaman

Development—the pursuit of high rates of growth and investment, by recourse to foreign loans and grants—is, by definition, dependent development, and ‘sovereign development’ is a contradiction in terms. Why, then, does this paper advocate the pursuit of an impossibility? In the hope, that in resolving this contradiction we will be persuaded both of the necessity of sovereign action and of the need to expand our conception of development beyond simply growth, to greater security. A study of forty countries, over 1870–1950, shows that there is a “quantitatively strong positive” relationship between economic growth and sovereignty (“the power of the state to advance, in the long run, the interests of indigenous factors in opposition to the interests of foreign factors”). Since September 2001 when, in the face of an ultimatum, Pakistan was forced to surrender much of its sovereignty to America, a war has been and is being waged upon us, without credible response, to the point where today even the territorial integrity of Pakistan is at risk.



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