Pakistan Institute of Development Economics


Alternative Optimal Social Orders

The structure of the optimal order should be found by scientific analysis. State of the art shifts over time. Marx’s scientific socialism was based on science a century ago; it must be adapted accordingly. Laissez faire was based on too simple assumptions. Collective goods and marginal welfare equality require State intervention. Level of decision-making must be supranational in some fields. Controversial points and the ‘research needed to reduce controversies are listed.

Jan Tinbergen

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