Assessing Energy Consumption and Energy Intensity Changes in Pakistan: An Application of Complete Decomposition Model

Complete decomposition model has been employed in the present study to decompose the changes in energy consumption and energy intensity in Pakistan during 1960 to 1998. A general decomposition model raises a problem due to residual term. In some models the residual term is omitted, which causes a large estimation error, while in some models the residual term is regarded as an interaction that might create a puzzle for the analysis. A complete decomposition model is used here to solve this problem.