This report by David A. Robalino, et al. on Pensions in the Middle East and North Africa: Time for Change evaluates the current mandatory pension systems formulated in the 1970s in the region. Since the publication of Boersch-Supan Palacios and Tumbarello (1999), cited in the volume, the Word Bank has been providing technical assistance to the countries of the region in the area of pension reforms. According to Schwarz and Demirguc-Kunt (1999), also cited in the volume, more than 60 countries have introduced pension reforms in the last 20 years. The financial problems and the fiscal burden of these generous schemes was the common motivation for the reforms undertaken. The present book by David Robalino and his co-authors is the extension of those previous works published five years ago.