Sustainable Development—which ensures that the use of resources and the environment today does not restrict their use by future generations [UNEP (2007)]—is the most significant challenge facing today’s governments. Consequently, the notion of Sustainable Development [Matthews (1979)] has become a fundamental part of any policy and decision carried out at national and international levels. If the current acceleration of human advancement is not reduced it poses the biggest threat to long term sustainability of the entire globe, arising from the development and industrialisation in the twenty-first century, dwarfing the impact of twentieth century. This further compounds the work of policy-makers faced with the challenge of fast tracking the economies of developing countries. Since the Industrial Revolution energy has become the lifeline of economic development and progress. This led to exponential increase in use of fossil fuels. However, rampant, unchecked and accelerated burning of fossil fuels in the twentieth century has resulted disastrous and long term damaging effects to earth’s climate. Consequently, world has begun this century with the aim “to develop a coherent and practical approach to climate change [World Energy Council (2007)].” “Safe, environmentally sound and economically viable energy pathway that will sustain human progress into the distant future is clearly imperative [WCEW (1987)]” to achieve the above goal. As a result environment has become an integral part of any energy system and policy. On the whole today’s energy policies and decisions have to be carefully woven into an intricate web traversing the boundaries of economy, environment and society.