Pakistan Institute of Development Economics



E-government, Economic Growth and Trade: A Simultaneous EquationApproach

Labour has always been considered as major source of incomeand livelihood, and the labour market of Pakistan which provides animportant source to alleviate poverty and raise the standard of living.The characteristics of labour i.e. age, gender, location, caste andreligion makes labour market highly segmented. And these factors oftenmake buyer bias which indeed causes a discrimination and exclusion inlabour market. This study tries to investigate the issue of socialexclusion which has been faced by marginalised class in labour forceparticipation. While analysing trends of marginalised labour forceparticipation, the role of social networks also take into account. Themarginalised labour force has been selected based on religion and gender(minorities, women, transgender) which is the part of formal andinformal labour market of the city Lahore, Pakistan. The study use logitmodelling to analyse the role of social exclusion and other determinantsin labour force participation of marginalised class and also evaluatethe role of labour force participation in the poverty status ofmarginalised households. Results show a strong effect of socialexclusion on labour force participation and poverty. Keywords: SocialExclusion, Labour Market Segmentation, Social Network

Kanwal Zahra,Tasneem Zafar,Mahmood Khalid