THE PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW
Energy, Emissions and the Economy: Empirical Analysis from Pakistan
It is now an established fact that the most important environmental problem of our era is global warming.1 The rising quantity of worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions seems to be escalating this problem. As the emissions generally result from consumption of fossil fuels, decreasing energy spending seems to be the direct way of handling the emissions problem. However, because of the possible negative impacts on economic growth, cutting the energy utilisation is likely to be the “less preferred road”. Moreover, if the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis applies to the emissions and income link, economic growth by itself may become a solution to the problem of environmental degradation [Rothman and de Bruyn (1998)]. Coondoo and Dinda (2002), however, argue that both developing and developed economies must sacrifice economic growth. Still, countries may opt for different policies to fight global environmental problems, mainly depending on the type of relationship between CO2 emissions, income, and energy consumption over the long run [Soytas and Sari (2006)]. Hence, the emissions-energy-income nexus needs to be studied carefully and in detail for every economy, but more so for the developing countries. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between energy consumption, CO2 emissions and the economy in Pakistan from a long run perspective, in a multivariate framework controlling for gross fixed capital, labour and exports by employing ARDL bounds testing approach.
Muhammad Tariq Mahmood