THE PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW
Gender and Ultimatum in Pakistan: Revisited
Razzaque (2009) studied the role of gender in the ultimatum game by running experiments on students in various cities in Pakistan. He used standard confirmatory data analysis techniques, which work well in familiar contexts, where relevant hypotheses of interest are known in advance. Our goal in this paper is to demonstrate that exploratory data analysis is much better suited to the study of experimental data where the goal is to discover patterns of interest. Our exploratory re-analysis of the original data set of Razzaque (2009) leads to several new insights. While we re-confirm the main finding of Razzaque regarding the greater generosity of males, additional analysis suggests that this is driven by student subculture in Pakistan, and would not generalise to the population at large. In addition, we find strong effect of urbanisation. Our exploratory data analysis also offers considerable additional insights into the learning process that takes place over the course of a sequence of games.