THE PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW
Impact of Global Financial Crisis on IDB Member Countries: The Case of Gulf Cooperation Council and Sub-Saharan Africa
The year 2008 witnessed three major crises (food, energy, global financial and economic crises) and their impacts were increasingly felt worldwide. Since the eruption of global financial crisis from September 2008, international financial markets have become more turbulent, and the global economic slowdown is expected to deepen further. Virtually no country, developing or developed, has escaped from the impact of the global financial turbulence, although countries that entered the crisis with less integration into the global economy have generally been less affected. There is an increasing concern that the ongoing global financial turbulence is likely to transform into human crisis, particularly in the developing world. Although, it will take sometime to assess the full impact of the these crises on developed as well as developing countries, various preliminary estimates have been reported about the losses due to these crises. For example, Kuwait Foreign Minister revealed in Arab Economic Summit that Arab investors lost $2.5 trillion just in four months (September to December 2008) due to credit crunch.1 Similarly, according to the latest estimate by the Asian Development Bank, the global financial market losses reached $50 trillion in 2008, which is equivalent to one year of world GDP.2 Like other developing countries, the impacts of these crises have also been increasingly felt in IDB member countries. Firstly, a large number of member countries were affected due to high food and fuel prices and since September 2008, they are being affected directly and indirectly by the global financial crisis although the channels of transmission are different from those operating in relatively more developed member countries.