1. Dr. Osama in his opening statement said that the judiciary has been treated like a sacred cow in Pakistan when it comes to open conversation and open discourse. When the judiciary is looked upon from an institutional standpoint (the structure, how it has been historically governed) that has a huge impact on the outcome. 2. Another important facet of the judiciary is the sociological standpoint, ultimately it is the people, their background, their class preferences, and their education, which has a bearing on all kinds of things. 3. Dr. Osama started the discussion by asking where do our judges come from? Before one gets to the legal appointment, one should look at legal education, which determines the quality of judgment and efficiency of justice disseminated in our courts.