Pakistan Institute of Development Economics

Research Reports
Local Governments and Sustainable Urban Development; A Case Study of Punjab
Publication Year : 2021

The population of urban areas is on the rise, and this ripeness is bringing new and complex changes at global and especially local levels throughout the period (Rana, 2011). The developing countries are on the radar of this rapid population growth (Harris 1998). In the 1990s, the urban population share was only 43% (2.3 billion) and by 2015 it increased to 54% (4 billion) of the total world population (UN-Habitat, 2016). Urban areas are covering only two percent of the total world area but are consuming 75% of its total resources (ADB, 2008). On the other hand, cities are contributing around about 70% of greenhouse gases worldwide (UN-Habitat, 2016; Sing, 2014; ADB, 2008). Highly dense urban areas of developing countries are fronting multiple and complex glitches including climate change, growing inequality, high rate of urban growth, urban sprawl, air & water pollution, sanitations problems, smog, insecurity, the swift growth of slums and informal settlements (UNEP, 2004; UN-Habitat, 2016). After the 1970s event of oil crisis, the World Bank (WB) shifted its emphasis towards infrastructure development of low-income countries (Parnell, 2016; Finnemore, 1997). In 1975, United Nation General Assembly established the first official UN body—United Nation Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation—dedicated to urbanization. In 1976, Vancouver host first international conference—HABITAT I—and in 1996 Istanbul host second international conference—HABITAT II.