Pakistan Institute of Development Economics



Marginality as a Root Cause of Urban Poverty: A Case Study of Punjab

Historically poverty as a concept was considered to be a key factor to design social policy. The social development normally is concerned with socio-economic empowerment of the poor of the concerned society. It is always been a key issue for developing as well as developed countries, however the nature and treatment of issue varies. The treatment of poverty is different from society to society. In advanced countries, an individual who is unable to actively participate in society or has weak social network, environment, health and education etc. is considered to be poor. Financial empowerment is also considered to be important in these countries but it takes into account with other dimensions of poverty [Lyberak and Tinios (2005)]. However, in developing countries, policy focus is still on uni-dimensional definition of poverty where a single dimension either consumption or income is a strong factor that affects the standard of living of an individual [Wagle (2005)]. Though the multidimensional poverty concept is also getting attractiveness in these countries with a perception that an individual’ status in one dimension cannot represent his status in another dimension but still there remains dearth of policy-making. Another important transformation in the literature on poverty is seen in terms of identification of nexus of marginality, social exclusion and poverty [Ruth, et al. (2007); Zoran, et al. (2006); Whelan and Bartrand (2005)]

Kanwal Zahra,

Tasneem Zafar