Most developing countries have been pursuing structural adjustment programmes, driven by the World Bank and the IMF, for more than 25 years without initially recognising the importance of regulation for economic liberalisation. Without regulation, the potential advantages of liberalising markets were in danger of being diminished in terms of improved efficiency and welfare. As a consequence, new forms of regulation have been emerging that cover health, environment, industry, employment and so on. This book examines the concepts and theories that have driven these reforms and the particular contexts that have influenced and conditioned them. The research presented in the book was carried out at the Centre on Regulation and Competition (CRC), University of Manchester, the United Kingdom, over the past five years. It contains fourteen chapters organised in five parts: competition, regulatory governance, regulation, capacity building and poverty.