The Census 2017 shows the lowest intercensal population growth of 2.13 per cent in Punjab, down from the previous intercensal growth of 2.64 per cent. The increase is higher for Sindh at 2.41 per cent against 2.80 per cent in the previous intercensal period. A still higher increase of 2.89 per cent occurred in Khyber- Pakhtunkhwa against 2.82 per cent between 1981 and 1998. Balochistan shows the highest growth of 3.37 per cent against the previous intercensal growth of 2.47 per cent. Does the better performance in Punjab and the poor performance in other provinces have anything to do with the effectiveness or otherwise of the population programmes?