THE PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW
Real Exchange Rate, Exports, and Imports Movements: A Trivariate Analysis
The exchange rate exerts a strong influence on a country’s trade. It is depicted from the high correlation between the real exchange rate and exports (0.90) and that between the real exchange rate and imports (0.88). In the present-day scenario of falling levels of tariff and a reduced number of non-tariff barriers, the exchange rate has assumed a crucial role in influencing the trade deficit. Imports have a very significant association with exports as shown by the correlation between exports and imports (0.97). The increase in exports in the absence of surplus stocks requires an increase in production, which in turn requires capital and raw material. We analysed the long-run relationship and the short-run dynamics among the three variables. It is concluded that there exists a long-run relationship between real exchange rate, exports, and imports; and real exchange rate is negatively associated with the exports and positively associated with the imports. In the short-run, imports and exports adjust towards their equilibrium when there is disequilibrium. But the adjustment in the imports is greater than the adjustment in the exports. Moreover, exports do not respond to the shock caused by the real exchange rate, but imports respond to the sudden shock in the real exchange rate. The study ends up with the note that the sudden movements in the real exchange rate do not affect exports. Therefore, Pakistan should not worry about exchange rate shocks.