Rural-Urban Income Inequality under Financial Development and Trade Openness in Pakistan: The Econometric Evidence

Pakistan is a developing economy, which has adopted Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in the form of economic reforms initiated in early 1990s. Economic reforms related to privatisation of state-owned assets, deregulation, confiscation of price controls, trade liberalisation generally and financial reforms (especially to improve quality of financial institutions) particularly. The objective of such reforms was to improve the welfare of society but these reforms never fruited to every livelihood in the country. Perhaps, fruits of economic reforms are eaten up by poor governance, lack of transparency in economic policies, high level of corruption, high burden of internal and external debts and interest rate payments on these debts, weak situation of law and order, and improper implementation of economic policies.