Following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg, and the 2012 Rio+20 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, sustainable development has become a widely accepted concept. World decision makers are seeking a more sustainable development path through the ongoing UN Post-2105 Agenda discussions, which includes key themes like the Green Economy (GE) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). They are hoping to find integrated solutions to many critical problems, including traditional development issues (such as energy scarcity, economic stagnation, poverty, hunger, and illness), as well as newer challenges (like climate change and globalisation). Energy is critical for sustainable development. Sustainable energy development (SED) is an operational framework involving the harnessing of energy resources for human use, in a manner that supports lasting development [Munasinghe (1995)]. We begin with a review of sustainable development itself, before describing the key role of energy. The World Commission on Environment and Development originally defined it as “development which meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”, and there have been many subsequent redefinitions.