THE PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW
Tax Incidence by Income Classes in Pakistan
In this study an attempt has been made to estimate the incidence of federal taxes, for the fiscal year 1978·79, on households belonging to different incomebrackets. All the major direct and indirect taxes have been studied. The tax system turns out to be slightly progressive for the country as a whole. For urban areas, it is slightly progressive, and for rural areas it is slightly regressive. Indirect taxes, a major source of the federal government tax revenue, are generally slightly regressive.