Most earlier research, based on the theory of the demographictransition, focused on the association between mortality decline as aprecedent to fertility decline. Whereas most of Europe experienceddeclines in mortality prior to fertility declines, even there theevidence is not conclusive that declines in mortality always precededchanges in fertility [Knodel and Van de Walle (1979)]. In most Asiancountries which have experienced demographic transitions in the recentpast mortality and fertility have declined in close succession. Theposition being taken here is that in certain settings substantialfertility declines, or at least an alteration in fertility patterns, maybe a prerequisite to substantial declines in child mortality. Theassociation between fertility patterns and child survival is to beinvestigated with a view to analysing the likely effects of changes infertility patterns on chances of child survival.