THE PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW
Effectiveness of the Exchange Rate Channel in Monetary Policy Transmission in Pakistan (Article)
The exchange rate is one of the most important channels of monetary policy transmission to the real economy. However, the effectiveness of this channel depends on the extent of exchange rate flexibility, degree of international capital mobility, and inflation expectations. Like other emerging economies, Pakistan is typically characterised by weak fiscal and monetary institutions, currency substitution, liability dollarisation, and vulnerability to sudden stops of capital flows. These features compel emerging economies to follow managed exchange rate regimes by restricting the mobility of capital flow. All these factors weaken the effectiveness of the exchange rate channel of monetary policy transmission. This study estimates the effectiveness of the exchange rate channel in monetary policy transmission in Pakistan and explores the impact of exchange rate regimes on the channel’s strength. The study benefitted from the widely used structural VARs methodology and found that the exchange rate channel is less effective in transmitting monetary policy shocks to the real economy. In recent years, however, greater flexibility in the exchange rate has improved the effectiveness of this channel.
Fayyaz Hussain, Mehak Ejaz