Pakistan Institute of Development Economics



Energy-Cost Optimisation in Water-Supply System

Water, being the basic requirement of life, is important to all living organism, human health and food production. A positive correlation between economic growth and rate of water utilisation has also been observed in a growth model with water as a productive input for private producers [Barbier (2004)]. In addition, high per-capita consumption (PCC) of water is regarded as an indicator of the level of economic development where per-capita water consumption is defined as the average of water consumed by a person in a day. The declining availability of water supply, mainly due to global climate change, is one of the important issues faced by many developing countries at the present time. It is estimated that nearly two third of nations across the globe will experience water stress by 2025.1 Thus, the safety and availability of clean water is an on-going concern within the global village