THE PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW
National and International Agricultural Research and Extension Programs. By James K. Boyce and Robert E. Evenson. New York: Agricultural Development Council 1975. IX+pp.229. $4.50.
Various studies on research and technology development have established that research and extension programs have contributed substantially towards the productivity gains in the agricultural sector of the high income countries. A greater emphasize is being placed on agricultural research and extension activities, in developing countries, and new programs are being planned and existing ones being strengthened, either through their own resources or with the help of various international aid agencies. Adequate and genuine technology transfers can help late comers in their race for development. However, transfer of agricultural technology is limited by geo-climatic factors; it is important for the specific countries and the donor agencies to know where potentially transferable discoveries of technology and technical knowledge are being made and which one of these offer the greatest potential. Moreover the provision of adequate data on research and extension and inter country and inter region comparisons of these data will stimulate further investigations that will be helpful in providing guidelines for the rational allocation of the limited scientific and material resources. The monograph, under review, is a valuable addition to the.inventory of research data. It is organized in six chapters. Chapter I provides a general summary of the data and main findings of the monograph. Chapter II deals with Investment in Public Sector Research and Extension Institutions, chapter III deals with International Aid and National and International Research Programs, chapter IV with Agricultural Research in the Private Sector and chapter V with Organization, Commodity Emphasis and Skill Levels in National Research Systems. Finally a brief survey of studies based on national data in this field of research is provided in the last chapter on Economic Properties of Agricultural Research and Extension.