THE PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW
Non-agricultural Market Access: A South Asian Perspective
Despite the fact that the WTO has helped to reduce the overall level of tariffs with increased transparency, a majority of the developing countries with the capacity to increase exports of labour intensive manufactures continue to face significant barriers in accessing foreign markets. Tariff rates applied by the developed countries for textile and clothing and leather for instance are much higher than those on other manufacturing products such as electronics, computers and telecom equipment, thus indicating a clear discrimination against exports of the developing countries. Moreover, tariff peaks, tariff escalation, tariff rate quotas and other non-tariff measures including antidumping duties, countervailing duties, and safeguard measures to protect against serious injury from import surges, allowed under the WTO, have become major impediments to market access for developing countries exports.