PAKISTAN’S land-tenure system, which has evolved over several centuries, has been characterized by inherent inequities. By the same token, it has tended to hinder rapid modernization of Pakistan’s agri- cultural sector. Like a chameleon, the system has often changed colours to deceive, even charm, the bewildered reformers; but nothing very substantial has happened since 1948. The zamindars, with the “un- ballasted wits” of class interest, have fought to obstruct land reforms of any kind. Even the 1959 land reforms which paid due attention to their interests were opposed by them.