Before the Pakistan Development Forum (PDF) takes place in April this year, we decided to organise this seminar today. There are several reason for doing this. First, 9/11 in 2001, Pakistan as a partner for Japan’s ODA has changed in a substantial way. Second, in 2005 Japan resumed its new commitments on yen loans, and it would be appropriate to review our ODA policy to Pakistan before our yen loan operation is put back in full swing. Third, Japan’s ODA to Pakistan has mainly been delivered through projects. Facing the growing criticism against the project approach, it would be our responsibility as a major donor to review the effectiveness of our main aid modality. Fourth, aid coordination in Pakistan has entered into a new era after Pakistan and donors including Japan joined in the adoption of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness in March 2005.